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Annu Rev Physiol. 2017 Feb 10;79:381-399. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-021115-105003. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Neural Mechanisms for Predicting the Sensory Consequences of Behavior: Insights from Electrosensory Systems.

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Department of Neuroscience and Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032; email:


Perception of the environment requires differentiating between external sensory inputs and those that are self-generated. Some of the clearest insights into the neural mechanisms underlying this process have come from studies of the electrosensory systems of fish. Neurons at the first stage of electrosensory processing generate negative images of the electrosensory consequences of the animal's own behavior. By canceling out the effects of predictable, self-generated inputs, negative images allow for the selective encoding of unpredictable, externally generated stimuli. Combined experimental and theoretical studies of electrosensory systems have led to detailed accounts of how negative images are formed at the level of synaptic plasticity rules, cells, and circuits. Here, I review these accounts and discuss their implications for understanding how predictions of the sensory consequences of behavior may be generated in other sensory structures and the cerebellum.


cerebellum; corollary discharge; dorsal cochlear nucleus; electric fish; internal model; proprioception; synaptic plasticity

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