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Eat Weight Disord. 2017 Mar;22(1):43-48. doi: 10.1007/s40519-016-0330-4. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

The obesity paradox: is it really a paradox? Hypertension.

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Department of Medicine, University of Verona, 37100, Verona, Italy.


This article is a narrative overview of the role of hypertension on the relationships between obesity, morbidity, and mortality. We used as sources MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, from inception to March 2016. Key words include overweight, obesity, visceral obesity, obesity paradox, and hypertension. In addition, we hand-searched references from the retrieved articles. This work is one of the works of the topical collection "Obesity Paradox". The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases is well established, though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk in low-weight subjects or even a beneficial effect of overweight and obesity, the so-called "obesity paradox". In addition, the relationship between obesity and arterial hypertension has been demonstrated in both children and adults by many epidemiological studies. Moreover, weight reduction is followed by a decrease in blood pressure in many patients and ameliorates the cardiovascular risk profile. Recent studies using more appropriate obesity indices raise some doubt about the real significance of obesity paradox and there are several studies that central obesity shows either no protective or even a worse effect. These observations raise the question: what kind of obesity is protective and what kind of obesity is harmful? The studies of obesity paradox suffer from several methodological limitations: most of these are retrospective analyses or were not specifically designed to study obesity paradox as a primary goal; a few studies have data on preceding unintentional weight loss and on some particular confounding variables. In conclusion, more prospective and accurate studies are necessary to better elucidate the clinical importance of obesity paradox. When weight loss is functional to reduce hypertension and cardiovascular risk, it should be encouraged, while an unintentional weight in a patient with chronic diseases may indicate an unfavorable course.


Cardiovascular risk; Diet; Hypertension; Obesity; Paradox; Weight loss

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