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Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016 Dec;160(4):461-466. doi: 10.5507/bp.2016.052. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Nutrition, oxidative stress and intestinal dysbiosis: Influence of diet on gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy.
2
School of Medicine and Surgery - Hypathia Course, University of Palermo, Italy.
3
AOUP "P. Giaccone", School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Palermo, Italy.
4
Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Palermo, Italy.
5
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Histology, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy.
6
Fondazione Istituto S. Raffaele - G. Giglio, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Cefalu, Italy.
7
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon.
8
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib, Lebanon.
9
Department of Radiologic Science, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Palermo, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Microbiota refers to the population of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that inhabit the entire gastrointestinal tract, more particularly the colon whose role is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and control the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota is called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis redisposes to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and indeterminate colitis.

METHODS:

The purpose of this literature review is to elucidate the influence of diet on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the healthy gut and the role of diet in the development of dysbiosis.

CONCLUSION:

The "Western diet", in particular a low - fiber high fat/high carbohydrate diet is one factor that can lead to severe dysbiosis. In contrast, "mediterranean" and vegetarian diets that includes abundant fruits, vegetables, olive oil and oily fish are known for their anti-inflammatory effects and could prevent dysbiosis and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease.

KEYWORDS:

colorectal cancer; gut microbiota; healthy diet; inflammatory bowel diseases; intestinal dysbiosis

PMID:
27812084
DOI:
10.5507/bp.2016.052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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