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Inhal Toxicol. 2016 Nov;28(13):591-617.

Bentonite toxicology and epidemiology - a review.

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a Everest Consulting Associates , Princeton Junction , NJ 08550 , USA and.
b ToxPath Inc , Raleigh , NC , USA.


Bentonite, a clay with numerous industrial and consumer applications, is mined and processed in many countries of the world. Its many beneficial uses also create the potential for widespread occupational and consumer exposure. The available studies on toxicity and epidemiology indicate that the principal exposure pathway of concern is inhalation of respirable dust by occupationally exposed cohorts. Bentonite itself is probably not more toxic than any other particulate not otherwise regulated and is not classified as a carcinogen by any regulatory or advisory body, but some bentonite may contain variable amounts of respirable crystalline silica, a recognized human carcinogen. Therefore, prudent management and adherence to occupational exposure limits is appropriate. This review summarizes the literature available on production, applications, exposure, toxicity, and epidemiology of bentonite and identifies data gaps and limitations.


Bentonite; Fuller’s Earth; applications; epidemiology; mining; montmorillonite; occupational exposure; processing; toxicity

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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