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J Transplant. 2016;2016:4369574. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update.

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Section of Nephrology, Department of Transplant Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.
Hepatobiliary Surgery & Liver Transplantation, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, 5412 Pisa, Italy.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.


Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

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