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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Nov;55(11):990-1003. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.08.004. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder.


This Practice Parameter is a revision of a previous Parameter addressing reactive attachment disorder that was published in 2005. It reviews the current status of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DESD) with regard to assessment and treatment. Attachment is a central component of social and emotional development in early childhood, and disordered attachment is defined by specific patterns of abnormal social behavior in the context of "insufficient care" or social neglect. Assessment requires direct observation of the child in the context of his or her relationships with primary caregivers. Treatment requires establishing an attachment relationship for the child when none exists and ameliorating disturbed social relatedness with non-caregivers when evident.


disinhibited social engagement disorder; indiscriminate behavior; indiscriminate friendliness; indiscriminate social behavior; reactive attachment disorder

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