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J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jan;82(1):102-108. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001264.

There's an app for that: A handheld smartphone-based infrared imaging device to assess adequacy and level of aortic occlusion during REBOA.

Author information

1
From the Department of Surgery (K.K.S., G.E.B., S.B.W., K.K., S.T.M., M.J.E., M.J.M.), Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington; and Trauma and Acute Care Surgery Service (M.J.M.), Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, Oregon.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Advances in thermal imaging devices have made them an appealing noninvasive point-of-care imaging adjunct in the trauma setting. We sought to assess whether a smartphone-based infrared imaging device (SBIR) could determine presence and location of aortic occlusion in a swine model. We hypothesized that various levels of aortic occlusion would transmit significantly different heat signatures at various anatomical points.

METHODS:

Six swine (35-50 kg) underwent sequential zone 1 (Z1) aortic cross clamping as well as zone 3 (Z3) aortic balloon occlusion (resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta [REBOA]). SBIR images and readings (FLIR One) were taken at five anatomic points (axilla [A], subcostal [S], umbilical [U], inguinal [I], medial malleolar [M]) and were used to determine significant thermal trends 5 minutes to 10 minutes after Z1 and Z3 occlusion. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) thermal ratio patterns were identified and compared among groups, and images were reviewed for obvious qualitative differences at the various levels of occlusion.

RESULTS:

Body temperatures were similar during control (CON), Z1 occlusion, and Z3 occlusion, ranging from 94.0 °F to 100.9 °F (p = 0.126). No significant temperature differences were found among A, S, U, I, M points prior to and after aortic occlusions. Among the anatomical 2-point ratios evaluated, A/M and S/M ratios were the best predictors of aortic occlusion, whether at Z1 (8.2 °F, p < 0.01; 10.9 °F, p < 0.01) or Z3 (7.3 °F, p < 0.01; 8.4 °F, p < 0.01), respectively. The best predictor of Z1 versus Z3 level of occlusion was the S/I ratio (5.2 °F, p < 0.05 vs. 3.4 °F, p = 0.27). SBIR generated qualitatively different thermal signatures among groups.

CONCLUSION:

SBIR was capable of detecting thermal trends during Z1 and Z3 aortic occlusion by using an anatomical 2-point thermal ratio. There were also easily recognized qualitative differences between control and occlusion images that would allow immediate determination of adequate occlusion of the aorta. SBIR represents a potential inexpensive and accurate tool for assessing perfusion, adequate REBOA placement, and even the aortic level of occlusion.

PMID:
27805993
DOI:
10.1097/TA.0000000000001264
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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