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Semin Ophthalmol. 2017;32(1):144-152. doi: 10.1080/08820538.2016.1228412. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Vision Testing in the Evaluation of Concussion.

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a Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary , Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA , USA.


Traumatic brain injury results from an acute impact to the head causing brain dysfunction. Concussion is a form of mild traumatic brain injury. There are significant short- and long-term sequelae of concussion, and early diagnosis and management are key to recovery. Visual system symptoms and signs are common following concussion and have been shown to be a useful feature of concussion testing. Neuro-ophthalmic findings include abnormalities in the pupillary light reflex, accommodation, convergence, extraocular motility, steroacuity, as well as pursuit and saccades. Concussion generally occurs out of the medical setting, and access to a trained examiner or equipment to assist in diagnosis is limited. For this reason, much research is focused on developing a concussion test that is practical and reliable, and technology is likely to play an important role in this. Ultimately, no single test is a substitute for clinical judgment and multifaceted testing.


Brain; injury; neuro-ophthalmology; neurology; technology; traumatic

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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