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J Robot Surg. 2017 Jun;11(2):223-229. doi: 10.1007/s11701-016-0650-4. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Utilization trends and outcomes up to 3 months of open, laparoscopic, and robotic partial nephrectomy.

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Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 10029, USA.
Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W 168th St, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 10029, USA.


The aim of the study was to compare the utilization trends and short-term outcomes of open, laparoscopic, and robotic partial nephrectomy in New York State since the introduction of the robotic modifier in October 2008. The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database is an all-payer, administrative database covering all hospital discharges within New York State. All patients who underwent partial nephrectomy (ICD-9 55.4) for kidney cancer (189.0) from October 2008 to December 2012 were identified. Patients with a minimally invasive modifier (54.21, 54.51) without the robotic modifier (17.4x) were categorized in the laparoscopic cohort. Logistic regression was performed to assess outcomes by surgical approach. Of the 5107 patients, 57.9% (2959/5107) underwent open, 12.1% (617/5107) laparoscopic, and 30.0% (1531/5107) robotic partial nephrectomy. From 2009 to 2012, the percentage of robotic cases increased from 17.7 to 39.8%. In comparison to open patients, those undergoing laparoscopic and robotic approaches, respectively, were less likely to receive blood transfusion (OR 0.54, p < 0.0005 and OR 0.45, p < 0.0005) and to experience a prolonged length of stay (OR 0.52, p < 0.0005 and OR 0.30, p < 0.0005). Patients undergoing robotic approach were also less likely to have an inpatient complication (OR 0.74, p = 0.004) and be readmitted within one (OR 0.73, p = 0.005) and 3 months (OR 0.69, p < 0.0005), but were at higher risk of excess hospital charges (OR 1.216, p = 0.01). Robotic partial nephrectomy is the predominant minimally invasive approach in New York State. Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy has multiple short-term advantages over open, with the costlier robotic approach having additional advantages with less inpatient complication and readmission risk.


Kidney neoplasms; Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Nephrectomy; Outcome assessment; Robotic surgical procedures

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