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J Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 1;215(1):34-41. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw518. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Significant Correlation Between the Infant Gut Microbiome and Rotavirus Vaccine Response in Rural Ghana.

Author information

1
Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development.
2
Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam.
3
Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon.
4
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University.
5
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, and Immunobiology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
6
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
7
PATH, Vaccine Access and Delivery, Seattle, Washington.
8
Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Paediatrics, University of Padova, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings.

METHODS:

 We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6-week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana. These infants' microbiomes were then compared with 154 age-matched, healthy Dutch infants' microbiomes, assumed to be RVV responders. Fecal microbiome analysis was performed in all groups using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip.

RESULTS:

 We analyzed findings in 78 Ghanaian infants, including 39 RVV responder and nonresponder pairs. The overall microbiome composition was significantly different between RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.12), and Ghanaian responders were more similar to Dutch infants than nonresponders (P = .002). RVV response correlated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus bovis and a decreased abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in comparisons between both Ghanaian RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.008 vs 0.003) and Dutch infants and Ghanaian nonresponders (FDR, 0.002 vs 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS:

 The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries.

KEYWORDS:

intestinal microbiome; mucosal immunity; rotavirus vaccine

PMID:
27803175
PMCID:
PMC5225256
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiw518
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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