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PLoS One. 2016 Nov 1;11(11):e0165588. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165588. eCollection 2016.

Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis.

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Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food and Nutrition, "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo (USP), Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901, CP 52, 13414-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 714, Centro, 37130-000, Alfenas, MG, Brazil.


South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1-OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5-100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

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