Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Cancer. 2017 Mar 1;140(5):1009-1019. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30492. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Medicine and Population Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita Osaka, Japan.
2
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Sagami Women's University, Sagamihara Kanagawa, Japan.
3
Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Chuo-ku Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.81 for the highest group; p trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, 0.31-0.88 for the highest group; p trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (p trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect.

KEYWORDS:

JPHC; Japanese; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; fruit; gallbladder cancer; intrahepatic bile duct cancer; prospective study; vegetable

PMID:
27798952
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.30492
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center