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Curr Cardiol Rep. 2016 Dec;18(12):120.

Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review.

Author information

1
Bordeaux Population Health, University of Bordeaux, U1219, Bordeaux, France. phillip.tully@adelaide.edu.au.
2
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. phillip.tully@adelaide.edu.au.
3
INSERM U1219, Université de Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo Saignat - Case 11, 33076, Bordeaux Cedex, France. phillip.tully@adelaide.edu.au.
4
Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
5
Department of Cardiology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, Australia.
6
Bordeaux Population Health, University of Bordeaux, U1219, Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

Unrecognized anxiety is a difficult clinical presentation in cardiology. Anxiety leads to recurring emergency department visits and the need for numerous diagnostic evaluations to rule out cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses broadly on anxiety and its subtypes in relation to the onset and progression of CVD while describing helpful guidelines to better identify and treat anxiety. Potential mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis are also described. An emerging literature demonstrates that anxiety disorders increase the risk for incident CVD but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Anxiety portends adverse prognosis in persons with established CVD that is independent from depression. The level of clinical priority received by depression should be extended to research and clinical intervention efforts in anxiety. Anxiety holds direct relevance for uncovering mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis, developing novel therapeutic strategies, and initiating clinical interventions in the population at risk of developing heart disease, or those already diagnosed with CVD.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety disorders; Cardiovascular disease; Review; Risk factor

PMID:
27796859
DOI:
10.1007/s11886-016-0800-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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