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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Dec;14(12):760-773. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.149. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Unearthing the roots of ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

Author information

1
Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Unité Mixte de Recherche 1136 Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, Laboratoire d'excellence Recherches Avancés sur la Biologie de l'Arbre et les Ecosystèmes Forestiers (ARBRE), Centre INRA-Lorraine, 54280 Champenoux, France.
2
Université de Lorraine, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1136 Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, Laboratoire d'excellence Recherches Avancées sur la Biologie de l'Arbre et les Ecosystèmes Forestiers (ARBRE), 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
3
Biology Department, Clark University, Lasry Center for Bioscience, 950 Main Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA.

Abstract

During the diversification of Fungi and the rise of conifer-dominated and angiosperm- dominated forests, mutualistic symbioses developed between certain trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi that enabled these trees to colonize boreal and temperate regions. The evolutionary success of these symbioses is evident from phylogenomic analyses that suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi have arisen in approximately 60 independent saprotrophic lineages, which has led to the wide range of ectomycorrhizal associations that exist today. In this Review, we discuss recent genomic studies that have revealed the adaptations that seem to be fundamental to the convergent evolution of ectomycorrhizal fungi, including the loss of some metabolic functions and the acquisition of effectors that facilitate mutualistic interactions with host plants. Finally, we consider how these insights can be integrated into a model of the development of ectomycorrhizal symbioses.

PMID:
27795567
DOI:
10.1038/nrmicro.2016.149
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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