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Anaerobe. 2016 Dec;42:197-204. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.011. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Genetics of Microorganisms, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Gubkin Street, 119991, GSP-1, Moscow, Russian Federation; Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), 6 Miklukho-Maklai Street, 117198, Moscow, Russian Federation. Electronic address: romanyunes@gmail.com.
2
Laboratory of Genetics of Microorganisms, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Gubkin Street, 119991, GSP-1, Moscow, Russian Federation.
3
Laboratory of Genetics of Microorganisms, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Gubkin Street, 119991, GSP-1, Moscow, Russian Federation; Department of Biological and Medical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russian Federation.
4
Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), 6 Miklukho-Maklai Street, 117198, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Abstract

Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bifidobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains - psychobiotics.

KEYWORDS:

Bifidobacterium; GABA; Human microbiota; Lactobacillus; Probiotics; Psychobiotics

PMID:
27794467
DOI:
10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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