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Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 15;576:430-443. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.122. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Eurasian beaver activity increases water storage, attenuates flow and mitigates diffuse pollution from intensively-managed grasslands.

Author information

1
Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kindom. Electronic address: A.K.Puttock@exeter.ac.uk.
2
Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kindom.
3
Devon Wildlife Trust, Cricklepit Mill, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Beavers are the archetypal keystone species, which can profoundly alter ecosystem structure and function through their ecosystem engineering activity, most notably the building of dams. This can have a major impact upon water resource management, flow regimes and water quality. Previous research has predominantly focused on the activities of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) located in very different environments, to the intensive lowland agricultural landscapes of the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. Two Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were introduced to a wooded site, situated on a first order tributary, draining from intensively managed grassland. The site was monitored to understand impacts upon water storage, flow regimes and water quality. Results indicated that beaver activity, primarily via the creation of 13 dams, has increased water storage within the site (holding ca. 1000m3 in beaver ponds) and beavers were likely to have had a significant flow attenuation impact, as determined from peak discharges (mean 30±19% reduction), total discharges (mean 34±9% reduction) and peak rainfall to peak discharge lag times (mean 29±21% increase) during storm events. Event monitoring of water entering and leaving the site showed lower concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphate leaving the site (e.g. for suspended sediment; average entering site: 112±72mgl-1, average leaving site: 39±37mgl-1). Combined with attenuated flows, this resulted in lower diffuse pollutant loads in water downstream. Conversely, dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loads downstream were higher. These observed changes are argued to be directly attributable to beaver activity at the site which has created a diverse wetland environment, reducing downstream hydrological connectivity. Results have important implications for beaver reintroduction programs which may provide nature based solutions to the catchment-scale water resource management issues that are faced in agricultural landscapes.

KEYWORDS:

Ecosystem engineering; Eurasian beaver; Flow attenuation; Water quality; Water storage

PMID:
27792958
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.122
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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