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Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2017 Feb;32(1):40-52. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acw091. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Brain Network Theory Can Predict Whether Neuropsychological Outcomes Will Differ from Clinical Expectations.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
3
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
4
Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
5
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
6
Department of Psychology, Washington University in Saint Louis, St Louis, MO, USA.
7
Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
8
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis, St Louis, MO, USA.
9
Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA daniel-tranel@uiowa.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Theories of brain-network organization based on neuroimaging data have burgeoned in recent years, but the predictive power of such theories for cognition and behavior has only rarely been examined. Here, predictions from clinical neuropsychologists about the cognitive profiles of patients with focal brain lesions were used to evaluate a brain-network theory (Warren et al., 2014).

METHOD:

Neuropsychologists made predictions regarding the neuropsychological profiles of a neurological patient sample (N = 30) based on lesion location. The neuropsychologists then rated the congruence of their predictions with observed neuropsychological outcomes, in regard to the "severity" of neuropsychological deficits and the "focality" of neuropsychological deficits. Based on the network theory, two types of lesion locations were identified: "target" locations (putative hubs in a brain-wide network) and "control" locations (hypothesized to play limited roles in network function).

RESULTS:

We found that patients with lesions of target locations (N = 19) had deficits of greater than expected severity that were more widespread than expected, whereas patients with lesions of control locations (N = 11) showed milder, circumscribed deficits that were more congruent with expectations.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings for the target brain locations suggest that prevailing views of brain-behavior relationships may be sharpened and refined by integrating recently proposed network-oriented perspectives.

KEYWORDS:

Brain; Cognition; Lesion; Network; Neuropsychology; Profile agreement

PMID:
27789443
DOI:
10.1093/arclin/acw091
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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