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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Mar;28(3):199-212. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2016.09.005. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Inflammaging and 'Garb-aging'.

Author information

1
Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna IRCCS, 40139 Bologna, Italy.
2
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Centre 'L. Galvani' (CIG), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
3
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health (DISCCO), University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Via Zucchi 18 - 20095 Cusano Milanino (MI), Italy.
4
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Centre 'L. Galvani' (CIG), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: miriam.capri@unibo.it.

Abstract

'Inflammaging' refers to the chronic, low-grade inflammation that characterizes aging. Inflammaging is macrophage centered, involves several tissues and organs, including the gut microbiota, and is characterized by a complex balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Based on literature data, we argue that the major source of inflammatory stimuli is represented by endogenous/self, misplaced, or altered molecules resulting from damaged and/or dead cells and organelles (cell debris), recognized by receptors of the innate immune system. While their production is physiological and increases with age, their disposal by the proteasome via autophagy and/or mitophagy progressively declines. This 'autoreactive/autoimmune' process fuels the onset or progression of chronic diseases that can accelerate and propagate the aging process locally and systemically. Consequently, inflammaging can be considered a major target for antiaging strategies.

KEYWORDS:

PRRs; cell debris; centenarians; inflammaging; mitochondria; proteasome

PMID:
27789101
DOI:
10.1016/j.tem.2016.09.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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