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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2016 Nov;27(4):783-823. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2016.06.001.

Dextrose Prolotherapy: A Narrative Review of Basic Science, Clinical Research, and Best Treatment Recommendations.

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Private Practice, 4740 El Monte Roeland Park, KS 66205, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Electronic address:
The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30-32 Ngan Shing Street, School of Public Health Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong.
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 1100 Delaplaine Ct, Madison, WI 53715, USA.


Prolotherapy involves the injection of nonbiologic solutions, typically at soft tissue attachments and within joint spaces, to reduce pain and improve function in painful musculoskeletal conditions. A variety of solutions have been used; dextrose prolotherapy is the most rigorously studied and is the focus of this review. Although the mechanism of action is not clearly known, it is likely to be multifactorial. Data on effectiveness for temporomandibular dysfunction are promising but insufficient for recommendations. Research on the mechanism of action and clinical effects of dextrose prolotherapy are under way.


Dextrose; Osteoarthritis, Knee; Prolotherapy; Regenerative medicine; Tendinopathy

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