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Perspect Psychol Sci. 2016 Nov;11(6):917-928. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988).

Author information

1
Universidad de Granada
2
The Pennsylvania State University
3
Cleveland State University
4
Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
6
Carleton University
7
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
8
Dominican University
9
Université Libre de Bruxelles
10
Lancaster University
11
Holy Family University
12
Erasmus University
13
University of Amsterdam
14
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA)
15
Humboldt-Universität
16
Colorado College
17
George Fox University
18
Kozminski University
19
Üsküdar University
20
Lafayette College
21
Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands EJ.Wagenmakers@gmail.com.
22
Walsh University

Abstract

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout"). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the "smile" and "pout" conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16.

KEYWORDS:

facial feedback hypothesis; many-labs; preregistration; replication

PMID:
27784749
DOI:
10.1177/1745691616674458
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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