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J Hazard Mater. 2017 Feb 15;324(Pt B):160-167. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.10.045. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

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Department of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 71703, Taiwan.
Research Center for Cijin Cohort Study, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.
Department of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.


Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE.


High temperature frying; Nonanal; Unsaturated fatty acid; t,t-2,4-Decadienal

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