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J Clin Virol. 2016 Dec;85:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.10.010. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Human enterovirus and rhinovirus infections are associated with otitis media in a prospective birth cohort study.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Lääkärinkatu 1, FIN-33520, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: seppala.elina.m@student.uta.fi.
2
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Finland; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Finland.
3
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Lääkärinkatu 1, FIN-33520, Tampere, Finland.
4
School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
5
Department of Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
6
Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
7
Department of Pediatrics, PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
8
Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Tampere Center for Child Health Research, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
9
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Finland.
10
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Lääkärinkatu 1, FIN-33520, Tampere, Finland; Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM).

OBJECTIVES:

The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting.

STUDY DESIGN:

The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms were recorded by a questionnaire every 3-6 months.

RESULTS:

Altogether 610 AOM episodes were reported during the follow-up. 9.8% of the stool samples were positive for HRV and 6.8% for HEV. HRV positivity peaked at the age of 3-6 months declining gradually after this age, whereas HEV positivity peaked later, at the age of 12-24 months. The risk of AOM was increased in children who were HEV positive at least once at the age of 6-12 months (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], P=0.023) or who were HRV positive at least once at the age of 18-24 months (OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.0-5.2], P=0.042). Having an older sibling, short breast-feeding and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also significantly associated with AOM.

CONCLUSIONS:

HRV and HEV infections are frequent during the first months of life. The observed trend for increased risk of AOM in HRV and HEV positive children is in line with the results from hospital series suggesting that these viruses may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of AOM.

KEYWORDS:

Acute otitis media; Children; Picornaviruses

PMID:
27780081
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcv.2016.10.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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