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J Phycol. 2017 Feb;53(1):131-145. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12486. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Yihiella yeosuensis gen. et sp. nov. (suessiaceae, dinophyceae), a novel dinoflagellate isolated from the coastal waters of Korea.

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School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon, 16229, Korea.
Biological Institute, Section of Marine Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 4, DK-2100, Copenhagen K, Denmark.


A small (7-11 μm long) dinoflagellate with thin amphiesmal plates was isolated into culture from a water sample collected in coastal waters of Yeosu, southern Korea, and examined by LM, SEM, and TEM, and molecular analyses. The hemispheric episome was smaller than the hyposome. The nucleus was oval and situated from the central to the episomal region of the cell. A large yellowish-brown chloroplast was located at the end of the hyposome, and some small chloroplasts extended into the periphery of the episome. The dinoflagellate had a single elongated apical vesicle (EAV) and a type E eyespot, which are key characteristics of the family Suessiaceae. Unlike other genera in this family, it had two long furrow lines, one on the episome and the other on the hyposome, and encircling the dorsal, and lateral sides of the cell body. The pyrenoid lacked starch sheaths, but tubular invaginations into the pyrenoid matrix from the cytoplasm were observed. In the TEM, the dinoflagellate was observed to have cable-like structures (CLSs) near the eyespot but so far not observed in other dinoflagellates. The SSU rDNA sequences examined were 1.2%-5.1% different from those of other genera in the family Suessiaceae, whereas the LSU (D1-D3) rDNA sequences of this dinoflagellate were 15.1%-31.5% different. The dinoflagellate lacked a 51-bp fragment in domain D2 of the LSU rDNA, but it had an ~100-bp fragment in domain D2. This feature has been found previously only in the genera Leiocephalium and Polarella, two other genera of the Suessiaceae. The molecular phylogeny and sequence divergence based on SSU, and LSU rDNA indicate that the Korean dinoflagellate holds a taxonomically distinctive position and we consider it to be a new species in a new genus in the family Suessiaceae, named Yihiella yeosuensis gen. et sp. nov.


dinophyta; protist; taxonomy; ultrastructure; woloszynskioid

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