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BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Oct 24;16(1):413.

Euphorbia humifusa Willd exerts inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis through inhibition of TNFα-induced MMP-9 expression.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
2
Cancer and Metabolism Institute, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
3
Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
4
Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. yoongho@konkuk.ac.kr.
5
College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 120 Neundong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. yoongho@konkuk.ac.kr.
6
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. yhlee58@konkuk.ac.kr.
7
Cancer and Metabolism Institute, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. yhlee58@konkuk.ac.kr.
8
College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 120 Neundong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. yhlee58@konkuk.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. Euphorbia humifusa Willd (EuH) is a plant that is widely used as a traditional medicine. However, no systemic studies on the anti-cancer effects of EuH have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of the EuH.

METHODS:

Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared from EuH methanol extracts (EA/EuH). Inhibitory effect of EA/EuH on cell migration was determined using an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay. The anti-invasive activity was determined by in vitro three-dimensional spheroid culture system and in vivo syngenic experimental lung metastasis experiment. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay systems.

RESULTS:

Ethyl acetate fraction from the EuH extract (EA/EuH) inhibited the migration and invasive capabilities of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and attenuated syngeneic lung metastasis of mouse 4 T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, EA/EuH decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.

CONCLUSION:

EuH may be beneficial in the prevention of invasion and metastasis of early stage breast cancer and can be served as an anti-metastatic agent or adjuvant therapy against metastatic breast cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Euphorbia humifusa Willd; Invasion; Matrix metalloproteinase-9; Metastasis; Nuclear factor-kappa B; Tumor necrosis factor alpha

PMID:
27776550
PMCID:
PMC5078950
DOI:
10.1186/s12906-016-1404-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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