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J Hypertens. 2017 Jan;35(1):111-117.

The role of initial and longitudinal change in blood pressure on progression of arterial stiffness among multiethnic middle-aged men.

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aDepartment of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA bDepartment of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan cDepartment of Geriatric Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA dCentre for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan eDepartment of Research, Kuakini Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.



A few studies have examined the longitudinal association of blood pressure (BP) with arterial stiffness progression, and the results were inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of initial BP and its longitudinal change on the progression of arterial stiffness measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).


Study participants (n = 656) were from population-based samples of healthy men aged 40-49 years at baseline (213 White Americans, 47 African-Americans, 152 Japanese Americans and 244 Japanese in Japan). BP measures, baPWV and other factors were examined at baseline and 4-7 years later. General linear regression was applied for statistical analyses.


Annual change in SBP (standardized coefficient: 0.33, P < 0.001), but not its baseline level (standardized coefficient: 0.03, P = 0.495), had a positive significant association with the progression of baPWV after adjusting for a wide range of standard cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, annual changes in DBP (standardized coefficient: 0.35, P < 0.001), pulse pressure (standardized coefficient: 0.15, P = 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (standardized coefficient: 0.37, P < 0.001) were positively associated with the progression of baPWV. None of the baseline measures were related to the progression of baPWV.


Our findings imply that, regardless of initial BP, effective monitoring and controlling of BP is important to slow down arterial wall stiffening and hence reduce cardiovascular risk.

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