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Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017 May;52(5):689-698. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23632. Epub 2016 Oct 23.

Pulmonary hypertension in childhood interstitial lung disease: A systematic review of the literature.

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EpiMed Communications Ltd, 121 South Avenue, Abingdon, Oxford, OX14 1QS, United Kingdom.
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Epidemiology, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany.


Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) comprises a wide heterogeneous group of rare parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension is a common comorbidity in adults with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and associated with poor survival. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chILD, its effect on prognosis and healthcare use, and its treatment in clinical practice. Searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to February 2016), and American Thoracic Society conference abstracts (2009-2015) were conducted using relevant keywords. References from selected articles and review papers were scanned to identify further relevant articles. A total of 20 articles were included; estimates of PH in chILD ranged from 1% to 64% with estimates among specific chILD entities ranging from 0% to 43%. Comparisons between studies were limited by differences in the study populations, including the size, age range, and heterogeneous composition of the ILD case series in terms of the nature and severity of the clinical entities, and also the methods used to diagnose PH. Three studies found that among patients with chILD, those with PH had a significantly higher risk (up to sevenfold) of death compared with those without PH. Information on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in chILD or the effect of PH on healthcare use was not available. Data on the use and effectiveness of treatments for pulmonary hypertension in chILD are required to address this area of unmet need. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:689-698.


chILD; children; diffuse lung disease; interstitial lung disease; pediatrics; pulmonary hypertension

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