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Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2017 Feb;110(2):291-296. doi: 10.1007/s10482-016-0793-3. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Identification of a second PAD1 in Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480.

Author information

1
Departamento de Ciencia Y Tecnología de Los Alimentos, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile.
2
Departamento de Ciencia Y Tecnología de Los Alimentos, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. angelica.ganga@usach.cl.
3
Millennium Nucleus for Fungal Integrative and Synthetic Biology (MN-FISB), 120043, Santiago, Chile. angelica.ganga@usach.cl.

Abstract

Volatile phenols are aromatic compounds produced by some yeasts of the genus Brettanomyces as defense against the toxicity of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid). The origin of these compounds in winemaking involves the sequential action of two enzymes: coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase. The first one converts hydroxycinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes, which are then reduced to ethyl derivatives by vinylphenol reductase. Volatile phenols derived from p-coumaric acid (4-vinylphenol and 4-ethylphenol) have been described as the major contributors to self-defeating aromas associated with stable, gouache, wet mouse, etc., which generates large economic losses in the wine industry. The gene responsible for the production of 4-vinylphenol from p-coumaric acid has been identified as PAD1, which encodes a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase. PAD1 has been described for many species, among them Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia anomala. In Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480, a 666 bp reading frame (DbPAD) encodes a coumarate decarboxylase. Recent studies have reported the existence of a new reading frame belonging to DbPAD called DbPAD2 of 531 bp, which could encode a protein with similar enzymatic activity to PAD1. The present study confirmed that the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4722 with reading frame DbPAD2 under the control of the B. bruxellensis ACT1 promoter, encodes an enzyme with coumarate decarboxylase activity. This work has provided deeper insight into the origin of aroma defects in wine due to contamination by Brettanomyces spp.

KEYWORDS:

Brettanomyces bruxellensis; PAD1 gene; Volatile phenols; p-Coumaric acid

PMID:
27771809
DOI:
10.1007/s10482-016-0793-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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