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Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Feb 1;23(3):666-676. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-1326. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Influencing the Tumor Microenvironment: A Phase II Study of Copper Depletion Using Tetrathiomolybdate in Patients with Breast Cancer at High Risk for Recurrence and in Preclinical Models of Lung Metastases.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.
2
Department of Statistical Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
3
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.
4
Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
5
Investigational Pharmacy, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.
6
Department of Medicine, Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk, Connecticut.
7
Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.
8
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. ltv2001@med.cornell.edu vim2010@med.cornell.edu.
9
Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. ltv2001@med.cornell.edu vim2010@med.cornell.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, including VEGFR2+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and copper-dependent pathways, model the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that copper depletion using tetrathiomolybdate would reduce EPCs in high risk for patients with breast cancer who have relapsed. We investigated the effect of tetrathiomolybdate on the tumor microenvironment in preclinical models.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

Patients with stage II triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), stage III and stage IV without any evidence of disease (NED), received oral tetrathiomolybdate to maintain ceruloplasmin (Cp) between 8 and 17 mg/dL for 2 years or until relapse. Endpoints were effect on EPCs and other biomarkers, safety, event-free (EFS), and overall survival (OS). For laboratory studies, MDA-LM2-luciferase cells were implanted into CB17-SCID mice and treated with tetrathiomolybdate or water. Tumor progression was quantified by bioluminescence imaging (BLI), copper depletion status by Cp oxidase levels, lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity by ELISA, and collagen deposition.

RESULTS:

Seventy-five patients enrolled; 51 patients completed 2 years (1,396 cycles). Most common grade 3/4 toxicity was neutropenia (3.7%). Lower Cp levels correlated with reduced EPCs (P = 0.002) and LOXL-2 (P < 0.001). Two-year EFS for patients with stage II-III and stage IV NED was 91% and 67%, respectively. For patients with TNBC, EFS was 90% (adjuvant patients) and 50% (stage IV NED patients) at a median follow-up of 6.3 years, respectively. In preclinical models, tetrathiomolybdate decreased metastases to lungs (P = 0.04), LOX activity (P = 0.03), and collagen crosslinking (P = 0.012).

CONCLUSIONS:

Tetrathiomolybdate is safe, well tolerated, and affects copper-dependent components of the tumor microenvironment. Biomarker-driven clinical trials in high risk for patients with recurrent breast cancer are warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 666-76. ©2016 AACR.

PMID:
27769988
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-1326
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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