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PLoS Genet. 2016 Oct 21;12(10):e1006379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006379. eCollection 2016 Oct.

Effect of Insulin Resistance on Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Levels: A Multi-cohort Non-targeted Metabolomics and Mendelian Randomization Study.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America.
3
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA,United States of America.
4
Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.
5
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
6
Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, München-Neuherberg, Germany.
7
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, München-Neuherberg, Germany.
8
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
9
Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
10
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany.
11
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
12
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
13
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.
14
Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
15
Institute of Human Genetics, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
16
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
17
School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
18
Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
19
Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetology and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
20
Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
21
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
22
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, United States of America.

Abstract

Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test. These implicated bile acid, glycerophospholipid and caffeine metabolism for IR and fatty acid biosynthesis for impaired insulin secretion. In MR analysis in two separate cohorts (n = 2,613) followed by replication in three independent studies profiled on different metabolomics platforms (n = 7,824 / 8,961 / 8,330), we discovered and replicated causal effects of IR on lower levels of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. A trend for a causal effect of IR on higher levels of tyrosine reached significance only in meta-analysis. In one of the largest studies combining "gold standard" measures for insulin responsiveness with non-targeted metabolomics, we found distinct metabolic profiles related to IR or impaired insulin secretion. We speculate that the causal effects on monounsaturated fatty acid levels could explain parts of the raised cardiovascular disease risk in IR that is independent of diabetes development.

PMID:
27768686
PMCID:
PMC5074591
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1006379
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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