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Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2016 Oct 19;14(1):69.

Abdominal ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and single embryo transfer: a case report and systematic review.

Author information

1
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.
2
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. reshef.tal@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman who had an abdominal ectopic pregnancy following IVF and elective single embryo transfer, which was diagnosed and managed by laparoscopy. We performed a systematic literature search to identify case reports of abdominal or heterotopic abdominal ectopic pregnancies after IVF. A total of 28 cases were identified.

RESULTS:

Patients' ages ranged from 23 to 38 (Mean 33.2, S.D. = 3.2). Infertility causes included tubal factor (46 %), endometriosis (14 %), male factor (14 %), pelvic adhesive disease (7 %), structural/DES exposure (7 %), and unexplained infertility (14 %). A history of ectopic pregnancy was identified in 39 % of cases. A history of tubal surgery was identified in 50 % of cases, 32 % cases having had bilateral salpingectomy. Transfer of two embryos or more (79 %) and fresh embryo transfer (71 %) were reported in the majority of cases. Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy occurred in 46 % of cases while 54 % were abdominal ectopic pregnancies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our systematic review has revealed several trends in reported cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy after IVF including tubal factor infertility, history of tubal ectopic and tubal surgery, higher number of embryos transferred, and fresh embryo transfers. These are consistent with known risk factors for ectopic pregnancy following IVF. Further research focusing on more homogenous population may help in better characterizing this rare IVF complication and its risks.

KEYWORDS:

Abdominal pregnancy; Ectopic pregnancy; IVF-ET; In vitro fertilization

PMID:
27760569
PMCID:
PMC5070159
DOI:
10.1186/s12958-016-0201-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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