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Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 18;7:13158. doi: 10.1038/ncomms13158.

Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison.

Author information

1
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
3
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 202 8 Marta Street, 620144 Ekaterinburg, Russia.
4
School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, South Australia 5001, Australia.
5
Earth Sciences Section, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
6
Zoological Institute RAS, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya 1, 199034 St Petersburg, Russia.
7
Palaeogenetics Group, Institute of Anthropology, University of Mainz D-55128, Mainz, Germany.
8
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation, Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (CSIC-UIB), Cr. Miquel Marquès 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears.
9
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
10
Museum Requien, 67 rue Joseph Vernet, 84000 Avignon, France.
11
Laboratoire TRACES UMR5608, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès - Maison de la Recherche, 5 allée Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse, France.
12
Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.
13
ANO Laboratory of Prehistory, 14 Linia 3e 11, 199034 St Petersburg, Russia.
14
Environment Institute and School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
15
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 12 Via Paradiso, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.
16
CNRS, TRACES, UMR 5608 et CREAP, MSHS Toulouse, USR 3414, Maison de la Recherche, 5 allées Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse, France.
17
CERPOLEX/Mammuthus, Anna Paulownastraat 25A, NL-2518 BA Den Haag, The Netherlands.
18
School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Building 14, Canberra, Australian National University 0200, Australia.
19
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
20
Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Waszkiewicza 1c, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland.
21
Department of Archaeology, Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins, University of Southampton, Avenue Campus, Southampton SO17 1BF, UK.
22
Unité Histoire naturelle de l'Homme préhistorique (UMR 7194), Sorbonne Universités, Muséum national d'Histoire narurelle, CNRS, 1 rue René Panhard, 75013 Paris, France.
23
Department of Stone Age, Institute of Archaeology, National Ukrainian Academy of Science, 04210 Kiev, Ukraine.
24
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
25
Palaeogenomics and Bio-Archaeology Research Network, Research Laboratory for Archaeology, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
26
School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
27
Chercheur associé, CREAP, MSHS Toulouse, URS 3414, Maison de la Recherche, 5 allées Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse, France.
28
Centre for Isotope Research, Radiocarbon Laboratory, University of Groningen, Nijenborg 4, NI-9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands.
29
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, UMR7209, 'Archéozoologie, archéobotanique: sociétés, pratiques et environnements', CP56, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.
30
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, ØsterVoldgade 5-7, Copenhagen 1350K, Denmark.
31
Université de Toulouse, University Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire AMIS, CNRS UMR 5288, 37 Allées Jules Guesde, Toulouse 31000, France.
32
UCSC Genomics Institute, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

Abstract

The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<11.7 thousand years ago (kya)) remains a mystery. We use complete ancient mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide nuclear DNA surveys to reveal that the wisent is the product of hybridization between the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus) and ancestors of modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Although undetected within the fossil record, ancestors of the wisent have alternated ecological dominance with steppe bison in association with major environmental shifts since at least 55 kya. Early cave artists recorded distinct morphological forms consistent with these replacement events, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21-18 kya).

Comment in

PMID:
27754477
PMCID:
PMC5071849
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms13158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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