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Nutrients. 2016 Oct 14;8(10). pii: E630.

Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

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Hydration and Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France.
CREDOC (Centre de Recherche pour l'Etude et l'Observation des Conditions de Vie), Paris 75013, France.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria.
Hydration and Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France.
Hydration and Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France.
British Dietetic Association, Birmingham B3 3HT, UK.
School of Life and Medical Services, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK.


Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.


adequate intake; fluid intake; food moisture; total water intake

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