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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Oct 13;17(10). pii: E1717.

Panax ginseng Fraction F3 Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Protects against Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells.

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Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan.
Department of Natural Biotechnology, Nanhua University, Dalin, Chiayi 62249, Taiwan.
Research and Extension Center of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Dalin, Chiayi 62249, Taiwan.
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan.
Department of Medical Research, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan.
Department of Medical Research, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Dalin, Chiayi 62247, Taiwan.
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada.
Superwell Biotechnology Corporation, Taichung City 40876, Taiwan.
Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan.


In our previous work, the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was successively partitioned using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures in series to yield residue (R), F1, F2, and F3 fractions. Among them, F3 contained the highest deglycosylated ginsenosides and exerted the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of P. ginseng fractions against cellular oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Viability of adult retinal pigment epithelium-19 (ARPE-19) cells was examined after treatments of different concentrations of fractions followed by exposure to H₂O₂. Oxidative levels (malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and levels of activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results showed that F3 could dose-dependently protected ARPE-19 cells against oxidative injury induced by H₂O₂. F3 at a level of 1 mg/mL could restore the cell death induced by H₂O₂ of up to 60% and could alleviate the increase in cellular oxidation (MDA, 8-OHdG, and ROS) induced by H₂O₂. Moreover, F3 could restore the activities of antioxidant enzymes suppressed by H₂O₂. In conclusion, F3 obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation could significantly increase the antioxidant capacity of P. ginseng extract. The antioxidant capacity was highly correlated with the concentration of F3.


Panax ginseng; hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage; retinal pigment epithelium; supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation

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