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J Med Toxicol. 2016 Dec;12(4):341-349. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine.

Author information

1
Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA. alicia.lydecker@gmail.com.
2
Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, 104A Faser Hall, P.O. Box 1848, University, MS, 38677-1848, USA.
3
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, 417 Faser Hall, P.O. Box 1848, University, MS, 38677-1848, USA.
4
Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine.

METHODS:

A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in methanol extract of marketed Kratom supplements.

RESULTS:

We found multiple commercial Kratom products to have concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine that are substantially higher than those found in raw M. speciosa leaves.

CONCLUSIONS:

We have found multiple packaged commercial Kratom products likely to contain artificially elevated concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine, the alkaloid responsible for M. speciosa's concerning mechanistic and side effect profile. This study describes a unique form of product adulteration, which stresses the importance of increased dietary supplement oversight of Kratom-containing supplements.

KEYWORDS:

7-Hydroxymitragynine; Drugs of abuse; Kratom; Mitragyna speciosa; Mitragynine

PMID:
27752985
PMCID:
PMC5135684
DOI:
10.1007/s13181-016-0588-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Authors AL, AS, CM, and BA declare that they have no conflict of interest. Authors KB and EB provide medico-legal consultation and receive royalties from UpToDate. Author EB also participates in an NIH-funded research on drugs of abuse. Sources of Funding This study was funded by the Center of Research Excellence in Natural Products Neuroscience (CORE-NPN), Grant Number P20GM104932, which is funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as one of its Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE).

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