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J Food Sci. 2016 Nov;81(11):C2623-C2629. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13517. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Effect of Fermentation Temperature on the Volatile Composition of Kimchi.

Author information

1
Div. of Strategic Food Research, Korea Food Research Inst. (KFRI), 1201-62 Anyangpangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-746, Republic of Korea.
2
Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Univ. of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751, U.S.A.
3
Dept. of Animal Science, Iowa State Univ, Ames, IA, 50011, U.S.A.

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0.59% and 0.76% for the Kimchi fermented at 4 and 20 °C, respectively. Forty different types of volatile compounds, including alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and sulfur compounds, were identified. The Kimchi fermented at 20 °C produced greater amounts of volatile compounds than that at 4 °C. The amounts of most volatiles increased as the fermentation time increased, but those of aldehydes decreased rapidly during both 4 and 20 °C fermentation. Organic acids, ester, and nitriles were detected only in Kimchi fermented at 20 °C. The amounts of dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide produced from the Kimchi fermented at 20 °C were more than 2-times of those at 4 °C. Therefore, it is concluded that the strong pungent odor of Kimchi fermented at 20° C is probably due to the high amount of organic acids (low pH) and sulfur compounds (dimethyl disulfide, methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, and di-2-propenyl disulfide) between the 2 Kimchi.

KEYWORDS:

Kimchi; fermentation temperature; pungent odor; volatile compounds

PMID:
27750382
DOI:
10.1111/1750-3841.13517

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