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Mar Genomics. 2016 Dec;30:55-65. doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2016.10.003. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Diving into marine genomics with CRISPR/Cas9 systems.

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Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-mer (LBDV), 181 Chemin du Lazaret, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer, France. Electronic address:
Laboratoire Structure et Instabilité des Génomes, INSERM U1154, CNRS UMR7196, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, 43 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:


More and more genomes are sequenced and a great range of biological questions can be examined at the genomic level in a growing number of organisms. Testing the function of genome features, from gene networks, genome organization, conserved non-coding sequences to microRNAs, and, more generally, experimentally addressing the genotype-phenotype relationship is now possible owing to the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 revolution of genome editing. In the present review, we give a brief overview of the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox and different strategies for genome editing currently available. We list the first examples of applications to marine organisms and also draw from studies in more common laboratory models to suggest both guidelines for design of genome editing experiments as well as discuss challenges specific to marine organisms. In addition, we discuss future perspectives, including applications of CRISPR/Cas9 to base editing and targeted reprogramming of gene transcription.


CRISPR/Cas9; Functional genomics; Genome editing; Model organisms; Non-model organisms

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