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Int J Cancer. 2017 Feb 1;140(3):565-574. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30471. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Adult body size, sexual history and adolescent sexual development, may predict risk of developing prostate cancer: Results from the New South Wales Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR).

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Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (NSW), Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Department of Urology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia.
Menzies Centre for Health Policy, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
Menzies Health Institute, Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.


Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men worldwide. The relationships between PC and possible risk factors for PC cases (n = 1,181) and male controls (n = 875) from the New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) were examined in this study. The associations between PC risk and paternal history of PC, body mass index (BMI), medical conditions, sexual behaviour, balding pattern and puberty, after adjusting for age, income, region of birth, place of residence, and PSA testing, were examined. Adjusted risk of PC was higher for men with a paternal history of PC (OR = 2.31; 95%CI: 1.70-3.14), personal history of prostatitis (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.44-3.70), benign prostatic hyperplasia (OR = 2.29; 95%CI: 1.79-2.93), being overweight (vs. normal; OR = 1.24; 95%CI: 0.99-1.55) or obese (vs. normal; OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.09-1.89), having reported more than seven sexual partners in a lifetime (vs. < 3 partners; OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.49-2.68), and having reported more than 5 orgasms a month prior to PC diagnosis (vs. ≤3 orgasms; OR = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.18-2.15). PC risk was lower for men whose timing of puberty was later than their peers (vs. same as peers; OR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.59-0.97), and a smaller risk reduction of was observed in men whose timing of puberty was earlier than their peers (vs. same as peers; OR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.61-1.17). No associations were found between PC risk and vertex balding, erectile function, acne, circumcision, vasectomy, asthma or diabetes. These results support a role for adult body size, sexual activity, and adolescent sexual development in PC development.


Prostate cancer; balding; obesity; puberty; sexual activity

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