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J Food Sci. 2016 Nov;81(11):C2639-C2646. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13516. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Characterizing Soy Sauce Moromi Manufactured by High-Salt Dilute-State and Low-Salt Solid-State Fermentation Using Multiphase Analyzing Methods.

Zhang L1,2, Zhou R1,2,3, Cui R1,2, Huang J1,2, Wu C1,2.

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College of Light Industry, Textile & Food Engineering, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu, 610065, China.
Key Laboratory for Leather Chemistry and Engineering of the Education Ministry, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu, 610065, China.
National Engineering Research Centre of Solid-State Brewing, Luzhou, 646000, China.


Present study was to characterize the physiochemical properties, free amino acids (FAAs), volatiles and microbial communities of various moromi, respectively sampled from different stages of high-salt dilute-state (HSDS) and low-salt solid-state (LSSS) fermentation, using multiphase analyzing methods. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis indicated that Gram-positive bacteria were dominant bacteria and fungi were principal microbes. For DGGE analysis, dominant microbes in moromi were mainly fell into Weissella, Tetragenococcus, Candida, Pichia, and Zygosaccharomyces. During fermentation, the dominant microbes shifted from nonhalophilic and less acid-tolerant species to halophilic and acid-tolerant species. Total of 15 FAAs and 44 volatiles were identified in moromi, mainly Glu, Asp, Tyr, and acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, respectively. Odor activity values analysis suggested that the final moromi of LSSS fermentation had more complicated odors than that of HSDS fermentation. Conclusively, technological parameters, microbial communities, raw materials and fermentation process may result in the discrepancy of HSDS and LSSS moromi.


PLFA and DGGE; headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrum; microbial communities; soy sauce moromi; volatiles


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