Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016 Dec;31(12):2086-2094. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Prevalence and recognition of chronic kidney disease in Stockholm healthcare.

Author information

1
Division of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Technology and Intervention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
3
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
4
Medical Management Center, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
5
School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
6
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
7
Deptartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
8
Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
9
Public Healthcare Services committee, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
10
Center for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
11
Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, but the frequency of albuminuria testing and referral to nephrology care has been difficult to measure. We here characterize CKD prevalence and recognition in a complete healthcare utilization cohort of the Stockholm region, in Sweden.

METHODS:

We included all adult individuals (n = 1 128 058) with at least one outpatient measurement of IDMS-calibrated serum creatinine during 2006-11. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated via the CKD-EPI equation and CKD was solely defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We also assessed the performance of diagnostic testing (albuminuria), nephrology consultations, and utilization of ICD-10 diagnoses.

RESULTS:

A total of 68 894 individuals had CKD, with a crude CKD prevalence of 6.11% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.07-6.16%] and a prevalence standardized to the European population of 5.38% (5.33-5.42%). CKD was more prevalent among the elderly (28% prevalence >75 years old), women (6.85 versus 5.24% in men), and individuals with diabetes (17%), hypertension (17%) or cardiovascular disease (31%). The frequency of albuminuria monitoring was low, with 38% of diabetics and 27% of CKD individuals undergoing albuminuria testing over 2 years. Twenty-three per cent of the 16 383 individuals satisfying selected KDIGO criteria for nephrology referral visited a nephrologist. Twelve per cent of CKD patients carried an ICD-10 diagnostic code of CKD.

CONCLUSIONS:

An estimated 6% of the adult Stockholm population accessing healthcare has CKD, but the frequency of albuminuria testing, nephrology consultations and registration of CKD diagnoses was suboptimal despite universal care. Improving provider awareness and treatment of CKD could have a significant public health impact.

KEYWORDS:

chronic renal failure; creatinine; nephrology; public health; referral

PMID:
27738231
PMCID:
PMC5146708
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfw354
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center