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Science. 2016 Oct 14;354(6309). pii: aaf8957.

Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

Author information

1
School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA. albeca.liang@gmail.com.
2
Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
3
Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
4
Landcare Research, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand.
5
School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.
6
Department of Agri-Food, Animal and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine via delle Scienze 206, Udine 33100, Italy.
7
Max-Planck Institut für Biogeochemie, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.
8
U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.
9
Architecture and Environment Department, Italcementi Group, 24100 Bergamo, Italy.
10
Institute of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany.
11
Departament de Producció Vegetal i Ciència Forestal, Universitat de Lleida-Agrotecnio Center (UdL-Agrotecnio), Avinguda Rovira Roure, 191, E-25198 Lleida, Spain. Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC), Carretera De St. Llorenç de Morunys, km. 2, E-25280 Solsona, Spain.
12
Centre d'étude de la forêt (CEF), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada.
13
Centre de Coopération Internationale en la Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), UMR Joint Research Unit Ecology of Guianan Forests (EcoFoG) AgroParisTech, CNRS, INRA, Université des Antilles, Université de la Guyane, Kourou, French Guiana.
14
University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Geobotany, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.
15
Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
16
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
17
Wageningen University and Research (Alterra), Team Vegetation, Forest and Landscape Ecology-6700 AA, Netherlands. Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, Wageningen University and Research, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
18
Wageningen University and Research (Alterra), Team Vegetation, Forest and Landscape Ecology-6700 AA, Netherlands. Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
19
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Richmond NSW 2753, Australia.
20
Center for Studies in Education, Technologies and Health (CI&DETS) Research Centre/Departamento de Ecologia e Agricultura Sustentável (DEAS)-Escola Superior Agrária de Viseu (ESAV), Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Portugal. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
21
Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Rua São Paulo, 3250, 89030-000 Blumenau-Santa Catarina, Brazil.
22
Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, Georg-August University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany.
23
School of Natural Resources and Extension, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
24
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forests, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, 50/28, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
25
Institute of Plant Sciences, Botanical Garden, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland. Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BIK-F), 60325 Frankfurt, Germany.
26
Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1 Canada.
27
Research Institute of Forest Resource Information Techniques, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.
28
Wageningen University and Research (Alterra), Team Vegetation, Forest and Landscape Ecology-6700 AA, Netherlands.
29
Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
30
Sustainable Agro-Ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Research and Innovation Centre - Fondazione Edmund, Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010-S. Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy. Foxlab Joint CNR-Fondazione Edmund Mach Initiative, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 - S.Michele all'Adige; Adige (TN), Italy.
31
Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.
32
Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.
33
Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
34
Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea. Interdisciplinary Program in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea. National Center for AgroMeteorology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea.
35
Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
36
Forest Ecology and Conservation, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
37
Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia, Ferradas, Itabuna 45613-204, Brazil.
38
Sustainable Landscapes and Food Systems, Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia. School of Marine and Environmental Studies, James Cook University, Australia.
39
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
40
UPR F&S Montpellier, 34398, France.
41
Plant Systematic and Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Higher Teachers' Training College, University of Yaounde I, Post Office Box 047 Yaounde, Cameroon.
42
Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 00153, Italy.
43
Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
44
Institute of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany. Bavarian State Institute of Forestry, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 1, Freising 85354, Germany.
45
Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193, Spain. Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Spain.
46
Shikoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kochi 780-8077, Japan.
47
Ecological Sciences Unit at Queensland Herbarium, Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation, Queensland Government, Toowong, Qld, 4066, Australia.
48
International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. INRA, UMR EcoFoG, Kourou, French Guiana.
49
Sustainable Agro-Ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Research and Innovation Centre - Fondazione Edmund, Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010-S. Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy.
50
Forest Research Institute, Sekocin Stary Braci Lesnej 3 Street, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland.
51
Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, PL-62-035 Kornik, Poland. Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
52
Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Faculty of Forestry, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland. Polish State Forests, ul. Grojecka 127, 02-124 Warszawa, Poland.
53
Forestry Faculty, University Stefan Cel Mare of Suceava, 13 Strada Universitații,720229 Suceava, Romania. Institutul Național de Cercetare-Dezvoltare în Silvicultură, 128 Bd Eroilor, 077190 Voluntari, Romania.
54
Department of Agri-Food Production and Environmental Science, University of Florence, P. le Cascine 28, 51044 Florence, Italy.
55
Natural Resources Institute Finland, 80101 Joensuu, Finland.
56
Białowieża Geobotanical Station, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Sportowa 19, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland.
57
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 115 dpdo, E-28006 Madrid, Spain. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain.
58
Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, PL-62-035 Kornik, Poland. Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Game Management and Forest Protection, Wojska Polskiego 71c, PL-60-625 Poznan, Poland.
59
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917 (1033) Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA) Santa Cruz, Mahatma Ghandi 1322 (9400) Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA), Lisandro de la Torre 1070 (9400) Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.
60
Department of Plant Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Post Office Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon. National Herbarium, Post Office Box 1601, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
61
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY 10460, USA.
62
College of African Wildlife Management, Department of Wildlife Management, Post Office Box 3031, Moshi, Tanzania.
63
Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5NG, UK. Flamingo Land, Malton, North Yorkshire, YO10 6UX.
64
Tropical Biodiversity Section, MUSE-Museo delle Scienze, Trento, Italy.
65
Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation, Kabale, Uganda.
66
Center for Tropical Conservation, Durham, NC 27705, USA.
67
Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Forestry and Beekeeping Division, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
68
Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 1701-2184, Quito, Ecuador.
69
Forest Management Department, Centre for Agricultural Research in Suriname (CELOS), Paramaribo, Suriname.
70
Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale (IRET)/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CENAREST), B. P. 13354, Libreville, Gabon.
71
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Coordenacao de Botanica, Belem, PA, Brasil.
72
National Forest Authority, Kampala, Uganda.
73
Prolongación Bolognesi Mz-E-6, Oxapampa Pasco, Peru.
74
Department of Geography, University College London, UK. School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK.
75
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Richmond NSW 2753, Australia. Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Abstract

The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities.

Comment in

PMID:
27738143
DOI:
10.1126/science.aaf8957
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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