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Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 15;64(2):124-131. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw683. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Persistent, Albeit Reduced, Chronic Inflammation in Persons Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Immunoregulation.
2
The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda.
3
US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring.
4
SEARCH, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center.
5
Department of Retrovirology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, US Army Medical Component, Bangkok, Thailand.
6
AIDS Monitoring Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Maryland.
7
Centre de Recherche du CHUM and Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada.
8
Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center, Sandler Neurosciences Center.
9
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
10
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston neutay@utmb.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial disease and death despite human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker levels.

METHODS:

 Plasma samples were obtained from participants starting ART during acute or chronic HIV infection and from HIV-uninfected participants from Bangkok, Thailand. Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin 6, soluble interleukin 6 receptor [sIL-6R], soluble gp130, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]), enterocyte turnover (intestinal fatty acid binding protein [I-FABP]), lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte activation (soluble CD14 [sCD14]), coagulation cascade activation [D-dimer], and fibrosis (hyaluronic acid [HA]) were measured at baseline and through 96 weeks of ART.

RESULTS:

 CRP, TNF, sIL-6R, I-FABP, sCD14, D-dimer, and HA levels were elevated in acute HIV infection. Early ART was associated with increased I-FABP levels but normalization of TNF, sIL-6R, and D-dimer levels. CRP, sCD14, and HA levels decreased during ART but remained elevated compared with HIV-uninfected participants. Higher sCD14, CRP, and D-dimer levels were associated with higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell and gut integrated HIV DNA levels. Decreases in sCD14 and CRP levels were correlated with increases in CD4 T-cell counts.

CONCLUSIONS:

 ART initiated in early acute HIV infection was associated with normalization of the coagulation cascade and several systemic inflammatory biomarkers, but the acute-phase response, enterocyte turnover, monocyte activation, and fibrosis biomarkers remained elevated. Additional interventions to attenuate inflammation may be needed to optimize clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection.

KEYWORDS:

acute HIV infection; antiretroviral therapy; inflammation; monocyte activation; sIL-6R

PMID:
27737952
PMCID:
PMC5215214
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciw683
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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