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J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017 Jan;65:600-608. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.09.019. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

A testing protocol combining shocks, hydrothermal ageing and friction, applied to Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) hip implants.

Author information

1
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CIS-EMSE, SAINBIOSE, INSERM U1059, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France; Université de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France. Electronic address: armelle.perrichon@emse.fr.
2
Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, 46 Allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France.
3
Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20 Avenue Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, France.
4
Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologie, CHU Saint-Etienne, Avenue Albert Raimond, 42270 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France.
5
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CIS-EMSE, SAINBIOSE, INSERM U1059, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France; Université de Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France.

Abstract

Ceramics are materials of choice for hip joint implants because of their excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Wear of the bearing couple (femoral head and cup) remains one of the main concerns of hip implants. Although ceramics are known for their good tribological properties, shocks due to micro-separation, friction and hydrothermal ageing in physiological environment remain the three main sources of wear. It has been recently suggested that shock effects dominate but the three degradation mechanisms were so far simulated separately. We developed a procedure that combines sequences of shocks, hydrothermal ageing in an autoclave and friction on hip-walking simulator to investigate their combined effects on Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) implants. Our results confirm that shocks can be considered as the key phenomenon causing wear, and that their effect is independent of friction and hydrothermal degradation. The analysis of retrieved femoral heads reveals wear features comparable to the ones created experimentally by shocks. Standards (ASTM or ISO) could be improved by including shock tests, which are more relevant than wear tests currently performed on hip simulators at least for Ceramic-on- Ceramic couplings.

KEYWORDS:

Ceramics; Explants; Hip implants; Shocks; Wear; Zirconia phase transformation

PMID:
27736716
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.09.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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