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Am J Public Health. 2016 Dec;106(12):2211-2218. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Ecological Association of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination with Cervical Dysplasia Prevalence in the United States, 2007-2014.

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At the time of the study, all of the authors were with the Division of STD Prevention; National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA.



To examine prevalence of low- and high-grade cervical lesions over time in a large cohort of US female adolescents and women.


We used health care claims data from 9 million privately insured female patients aged 15 to 39 years to estimate annual prevalence of cytologically detected cervical low-grade (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and high-grade histologically detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2+) during 2007 through 2014. We restricted analyses to those who received cervical cancer screening in a given calendar year.


Prevalence of HSIL and CIN2+ decreased significantly for those aged 15 to 19 years. Average annual percent change in prevalence in this group during 2007 through 2014 for HSIL and CIN2+ was -8.3% and -14.4%, respectively (P < .001 for both estimates). Prevalence of HSIL and CIN2+ also decreased significantly for women aged 20 to 24 years. No decreases were seen in women aged 25 to 39 years.


Decreases in high-grade lesions reflected their greater association with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18, compared with low-grade lesions, providing ecological evidence of population effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination among young, privately insured women.

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