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Lancet. 2016 Oct 8;388(10053):1725-1774. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31575-6.

Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

Collaborators (545)

Wang H, Bhutta ZA, Coates MM, Coggeshall M, Dandona L, Diallo K, Franca EB, Fraser M, Fullman N, Gething PW, Hay SI, Kinfu Y, Kita M, Kulikoff XR, Larson HJ, Liang J, Liang X, Lind M, Lopez AD, Lozano R, Mensah GA, Mikesell JB, Mokdad AH, Mooney MD, Nguyen G, Rakovac I, Salomon JA, Silpakit N, Sligar A, Sorensen RJ, Vos T, Zhu J, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abdulle AM, Abera SF, Aboyans V, Abraham B, Abubakar I, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Abyu GY, Achoki T, Adebiyi AO, Adedeji IA, Adelekan AL, Adou AK, Agarwal A, Ajala ON, Akinyemiju TF, Akseer N, Alam K, Alam NK, Alasfoor D, Aldridge RW, Alegretti MA, Alemu ZA, Ali R, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Al-Raddadi R, Alsharif U, Altirkawi KA, Martin EA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amberbir A, Amegah AK, Ameh EA, Ammar W, Amrock SM, Andersen HH, Anderson GM, Antonio CA, Ärnlöv J, Artaman A, Asayesh H, Asghar RJ, Assadi R, Atique S, Avokpaho EF, Awasthi A, Quintanilla BP, Bacha U, Badawi A, Balakrishnan K, Banerjee A, Banigbe BF, Barac A, Barber RM, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen T, Barrero LH, Bayou TA, Bayou YT, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Beardsley J, Bedi N, Bekele T, Bell ML, Bello AK, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhane A, Bernabé E, Betsu BD, Bhatt S, Biadgilign S, Bikbov B, Birlik SM, Bisanzio D, Bjertness E, Blore JD, Bourne RR, Brainin M, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJ, Brown A, Buckle GC, Burch M, Butt ZA, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano JC, Cárdenas R, Carpenter DO, Carrero JJ, Carter A, Casey DC, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Rivas JC, Castro RE, Catalá-López F, Cercy K, Chang HY, Chang JC, Chibueze CE, Chisumpa VH, Choi JJ, Chowdhury R, Christopher DJ, Ciobanu LG, Colquhoun SM, Cooper C, Cornaby L, Damtew SA, Danawi H, Dandona R, das Neves J, Davis AC, de Jager P, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Deribe K, Deribew A, Jarlais DC, deVeber GA, Dharmaratne SD, Dhillon PK, Ding EL, Doshi PP, Doyle KE, Duan L, Dubey M, Ebrahimi H, Ellingsen CL, Elyazar I, Endries AY, Ermakov SP, Eshrati B, Esteghamati A, Faraon EJ, Farid TA, Farinha CS, Faro A, Farvid MS, Farzadfar F, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes JC, Fischer F, Fitchett JR, Foigt N, Franklin RC, Friedman J, Fürst T, Gambashidze K, Gamkrelidze A, Ganguly P, Gebre T, Gebrehiwot TT, Gebremedhin AT, Gebru AA, Geleijnse JM, Gessner BD, Ginawi IA, Giref AZ, Gishu MD, Gomez-Dantes H, Gona P, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Goto A, Gouda HN, Gugnani HC, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta V, Gyawali B, Haagsma JA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haile D, Hailu AD, Hailu GB, Hamadeh RR, Hancock J, Handal AJ, Hankey GJ, Harb HL, Harikrishnan S, Harun KM, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Heredia-Pi IB, Hoek HW, Horino M, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Hotez PJ, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Hu G, Huang C, Huang JJ, Huang H, Huiart L, Iburg KM, Idrisov BT, Innos K, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Javanbakht M, Jayatilleke AU, Jee SH, Jeemon P, Jha V, Jiang G, Jiang Y, Jibat T, Jin Y, Jonas JB, Kabir Z, Kalkonde Y, Kamal R, Kan H, Kang G, Karch A, Karema CK, Kasaeian A, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Kayibanda JF, Kazanjan K, Keiyoro PN, Kemp AH, Kengne AP, Keren A, Kereselidze M, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khalil IA, Khan AR, Khan EA, Khang YH, Khonelidze I, Khubchandani J, Kim CI, Kim D, Kim YJ, Kissoon N, Kivipelto M, Knibbs LD, Kokubo Y, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Defo BK, Bicer BK, Kudom AA, Kumar GA, Kyu HH, Lal DK, Lalloo R, Lam H, Lam JO, Lansingh VC, Larsson A, Leigh J, Leung R, Li Y, Li Y, Lindsay MP, Liu PY, Liu S, Lloyd BK, Lo WD, Logroscino G, Low N, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Ma S, Razek HM, Razek MM, Mahdavi M, Majdan M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Mapoma CC, Marcenes W, Martinez-Raga J, Marzan MB, Masiye F, McGrath JJ, Meaney PA, Mehari A, Mehndiratta MM, Mekonnen AB, Melaku YA, Memiah P, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mhimbira FA, Miller TR, Mills EJ, Mirarefin M, Misganaw A, Mock CN, Mohammad KA, Mohammadi A, Mohammed S, Monasta L, Hernandez JC, Montico M, Moore AR, Moradi-Lakeh M, Morawska L, Mori R, Mueller UO, Murphy GA, Murthy S, Nachega JB, Naheed A, Naidoo KS, Naldi L, Nand D, Nangia V, Neupane S, Newton CR, Newton JN, Ng M, Ngalesoni FN, Nguhiu P, Nguyen QL, Nisar MI, Pete PM, Norheim OF, Norman RE, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Ojelabi FA, Olivares PR, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Oren E, Ota E, Pa M, Park EK, Park HY, Parsaeian M, Caicedo AJ, Patten SB, Pedro JM, Pereira DM, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Pillay JD, Pishgar F, Polinder S, Pope D, Popova S, Pourmalek F, Qorbani M, Rabiee RH, Rafay A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MH, Rahman SU, Rai RK, Raju M, Ram U, Rana SM, Ranabhat CL, Rao P, Refaat AH, Remuzzi G, Resnikoff S, Reynolds A, Rojas-Rueda D, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Roth GA, Roy A, Ruhago GM, Sagar R, Saleh MM, Sanabria JR, Sanchez-Niño MD, Santos IS, Santos JV, Sarmiento-Suarez R, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Savic M, Sawhney M, Schneider IJ, Schöttker B, Schwebel DC, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Setegn T, Shahraz S, Shaikh MA, Shakh-Nazarova M, Sharma R, She J, Sheikhbahaei S, Shen J, Sheth KN, Shibuya K, Shin HH, Shin MJ, Shiri R, Shuie I, Sigfusdottir ID, Silva DA, Silverberg J, Simard EP, Sindi S, Singh A, Singh JA, Singh OP, Singh PK, Singh V, Soriano JB, Soshnikov S, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Stathopoulou V, Steel N, Stroumpoulis K, Sturua L, Sunguya BF, Swaminathan S, Sykes BL, Szoeke CE, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tavakkoli M, Taye B, Tedla BA, Tefera WM, Tekle T, Shifa GT, Terkawi AS, Tesfay FH, Tessema GA, Thapa K, Thomson AJ, Thorne-Lyman AL, Tobe-Gai R, Tonelli M, Topor-Madry R, Topouzis F, Tran BX, Troeger C, Truelsen T, Dimbuene ZT, Tura AK, Tyrovolas S, Ukwaja KN, Uneke CJ, Uthman OA, Vaezghasemi M, Vasankari T, Vasconcelos AM, Venketasubramanian N, Verma RK, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Wang L, Wang Y, Weichenthal S, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Weiss DJ, Werdecker A, Westerman R, Widdowson MA, Wijeratne T, Williams TN, Wiysonge CS, Wolfe CD, Wolfe I, Won S, Wubshet M, Xiao Q, Xu G, Yadav AK, Yakob B, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Ye P, Yebyo HG, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Younis MZ, Yu C, Zaidi Z, Zaki ME, Zeeb H, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Zheng Y, Zhou M, Zodpey S, Murray CJ.

Erratum in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time.

METHODS:

Drawing from analytical approaches developed and refined in previous iterations of the GBD study, we generated updated estimates of child mortality by age group (neonatal, post-neonatal, ages 1-4 years, and under 5) for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational geographies, from 1980-2015. We also estimated numbers and rates of stillbirths for these geographies and years. Gaussian process regression with data source adjustments for sampling and non-sampling bias was applied to synthesise input data for under-5 mortality for each geography. Age-specific mortality estimates were generated through a two-stage age-sex splitting process, and stillbirth estimates were produced with a mixed-effects model, which accounted for variable stillbirth definitions and data source-specific biases. For GBD 2015, we did a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in child mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and annualised rates of decrease for under-5 mortality and stillbirths as they related to the Soci-demographic Index (SDI). Second, we examined the ratio of recorded and expected levels of child mortality, on the basis of SDI, across geographies, as well as differences in recorded and expected annualised rates of change for under-5 mortality. Third, we analysed levels and cause compositions of under-5 mortality, across time and geographies, as they related to rising SDI. Finally, we decomposed the changes in under-5 mortality to changes in SDI at the global level, as well as changes in leading causes of under-5 deaths for countries and territories. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 child mortality estimation process, as well as data sources, in accordance with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

FINDINGS:

Globally, 5·8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 5·7-6·0) children younger than 5 years died in 2015, representing a 52·0% (95% UI 50·7-53·3) decrease in the number of under-5 deaths since 1990. Neonatal deaths and stillbirths fell at a slower pace since 1990, decreasing by 42·4% (41·3-43·6) to 2·6 million (2·6-2·7) neonatal deaths and 47·0% (35·1-57·0) to 2·1 million (1·8-2·5) stillbirths in 2015. Between 1990 and 2015, global under-5 mortality decreased at an annualised rate of decrease of 3·0% (2·6-3·3), falling short of the 4·4% annualised rate of decrease required to achieve MDG4. During this time, 58 countries met or exceeded the pace of progress required to meet MDG4. Between 2000, the year MDG4 was formally enacted, and 2015, 28 additional countries that did not achieve the 4·4% rate of decrease from 1990 met the MDG4 pace of decrease. However, absolute levels of under-5 mortality remained high in many countries, with 11 countries still recording rates exceeding 100 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. Marked decreases in under-5 deaths due to a number of communicable diseases, including lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, measles, and malaria, accounted for much of the progress in lowering overall under-5 mortality in low-income countries. Compared with gains achieved for infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies, the persisting toll of neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies on child survival became evident, especially in low-income and low-middle-income countries. We found sizeable heterogeneities in comparing observed and expected rates of under-5 mortality, as well as differences in observed and expected rates of change for under-5 mortality. At the global level, we recorded a divergence in observed and expected levels of under-5 mortality starting in 2000, with the observed trend falling much faster than what was expected based on SDI through 2015. Between 2000 and 2015, the world recorded 10·3 million fewer under-5 deaths than expected on the basis of improving SDI alone.

INTERPRETATION:

Gains in child survival have been large, widespread, and in many places in the world, faster than what was anticipated based on improving levels of development. Yet some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, still had high rates of under-5 mortality in 2015. Unless these countries are able to accelerate reductions in child deaths at an extraordinary pace, their achievement of proposed SDG targets is unlikely. Improving the evidence base on drivers that might hasten the pace of progress for child survival, ranging from cost-effective intervention packages to innovative financing mechanisms, is vital to charting the pathways for ultimately ending preventable child deaths by 2030.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
27733285
PMCID:
PMC5224696
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31575-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of interests Itamar S Santos reports grants from FAPESP (Brazilian public agency), outside the submitted work. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc, outside the submitted work. Ferrán Catalá-López is supported in part by grant PROMETEOII/2015/021 from Generalitat Valenciana. Walter Mendoza is currently employed by the Peru Country Office of the United Nations Population Fund, an institution which does not necessarily endorse this study. Jasvinder A Singh has received research grants from Takeda and Savient and consultant fees from Savient, Takeda, Regeneron, Merz, Iroko, Bioiberica, Crealta and Allergan pharmaceuticals, WebMD, UBM LLC, and the American College of Rheumatology; he serves as the principal investigator for an investigator-initiated study funded by Horizon pharmaceuticals through a grant to DINORA, Inc, a 501 (c)(3) entity; is a member of the executive of OMERACT, an organisation that develops outcome measures in rheumatology and receives arms-length funding from 36 companies; a member of the American College of Rheumatology’s (ACR) Annual Meeting Planning Committee (AMPC); Chair of the ACR Meet-the-Professor, Workshop and Study Group Subcommittee; and a member of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee. Ai Koyanagi’s work is supported by the Miguel Servet contract financed by the CP13/00150 and PI15/00862 projects, integrated into the National R + D + I and funded by the ISCIII—General Branch Evaluation and Promotion of Health Research—and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF-FEDER). Donal Bisanzio is supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (#OPP1068048). Kebede Deribe is supported by a Wellcome Trust Fellowship in Public Health and Tropical Medicine (grant number 099876). Thomas Fürst has received financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF; project no P300P3-154634). Jost B Jonas reports personal fees from Consultant for Mundipharma Co (Cambridge, UK); other from patent application with University of Heidelberg (Heidelberg, Germany) (title: Agents for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic treatment of myopia or hyperopia; Europäische Patentanmeldung 15 000 771.4), and other from patent holder with Biocompatibles UK Ltd. (Franham, Surrey, UK) (title: Treatment of eye diseases using encapsulated cells encoding and secreting neuroprotective factor and/or anti-angiogenic factor; patent number: 20120263794), outside the submitted work. Stefanos Tyrovolas’s work is supported by the Foundation for Education and European Culture (IPEP), the Sara Borrell postdoctoral programme (reference number CD15/00019 from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII, Spain) and the Fondos Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). Yogeshwar Kalkonde is a Wellcome Trust/DBT Intermediate Fellow in Public Health. Sun Ha Jee has been funded by a grant of the Korean Health Technology R&D project (HI14C2686), Korea. Miia Kivipelto receives research support from the Academy of Finland, the Swedish Research Council, Alzheimerfonden, Alzheimer’s Research & Prevention Foundation, Center for Innovative Medicine (CIMED) at Karolinska Institutet South Campus, AXA Research Fund and the Sheika Salama Bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation. Shireen Sindi receives postdoctoral funding from the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec (FRSQ), including its renewal. Charles D A Wolfe’s research was funded/supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. The other authors declare no competing interests.

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