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Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 24;8(4):7068-7093. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.12548.

Advances in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment.

Author information

1
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
2
Sarcoma Disease Site Committee, Canadian Cancer Trials Group.

Abstract

The heterogeneity of sarcomas with regard to molecular genesis, histology, clinical characteristics, and response to treatment makes management of these rare yet diverse neoplasms particularly challenging. This review encompasses recent developments in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment, including cytotoxic, targeted, epigenetic, and immune therapy agents. In the past year, groups internationally explored the impact of adding mandatory molecular testing to histological diagnosis, reporting some changes in diagnosis and/or management; however, the impact on outcomes could not be adequately assessed. Transcriptome sequencing techniques have brought forward new diagnostic tools for identifying fusions and/or characterizing unclassified entities. Next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular techniques were also applied to identify potential targets for directed and epigenetic therapy, where preclinical studies reported results for agents active within the receptor tyrosine kinase, mTOR, Notch, Wnt, Hedgehog, Hsp90, and MDM2 signaling networks. At the level of clinical practice, modest developments were seen for some sarcoma subtypes in conventional chemotherapy and in therapies targeting the pathways activated by various receptor tyrosine kinases. In the burgeoning field of immune therapy, sarcoma work is in its infancy; however, elaborate protocols for immune stimulation are being explored, and checkpoint blockade agents advance from preclinical models to clinical studies.

KEYWORDS:

sarcoma advances; sarcoma diagnostics; sarcoma review; sarcoma therapeutics; soft tissue sarcoma

PMID:
27732970
PMCID:
PMC5351692
DOI:
10.18632/oncotarget.12548
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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