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FASEB J. 2017 Jan;31(1):14-28. doi: 10.1096/fj.201600652R. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations?

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Laboratory for Myology, Move Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Division of Endocrinology and.
Division of Pharmacology, Vascular and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Environmental, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy.
Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany; and.
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio, Benevento, Italy.
Department of Environmental, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy;


Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations.


metabolic syndrome; signal transduction; skeletal muscle

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