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Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug;4(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014.

Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses.

Author information

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Safety and Interventions Research Unit, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901.

Abstract

Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

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