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Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 10;7:12948. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12948.

Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans.

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Department of Biochemistry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.
John King Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK.
ChromaDex, Inc., 10005 Muirlands Blvd, Suite G, Irvine, California 92618, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.


Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is in wide use as an NAD+ precursor vitamin. Here we determine the time and dose-dependent effects of NR on blood NAD+ metabolism in humans. We report that human blood NAD+ can rise as much as 2.7-fold with a single oral dose of NR in a pilot study of one individual, and that oral NR elevates mouse hepatic NAD+ with distinct and superior pharmacokinetics to those of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. We further show that single doses of 100, 300 and 1,000 mg of NR produce dose-dependent increases in the blood NAD+ metabolome in the first clinical trial of NR pharmacokinetics in humans. We also report that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD), which was not thought to be en route for the conversion of NR to NAD+, is formed from NR and discover that the rise in NAAD is a highly sensitive biomarker of effective NAD+ repletion.

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Conflict of interest statement

F.J., R.W.D. and C.B. own stock in ChromaDex, the supplier of NR and sponsor of the clinical study. F.J. and R.W.D. are employees of ChromaDex. M.E.M. has received research grants and serves as a consultant for ChromaDex. C.B. has received a research grant and serves on the scientific advisory board of ChromaDex. S.A.J.T. and C.B. have an intellectual property interest in detecting NAAD as a biomarker of elevated NAD metabolism. C.B. is the chief scientific adviser of ProHealthspan, which sells NR supplements. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.

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