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Surv Ophthalmol. 2017 Mar - Apr;62(2):161-189. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2016.09.005. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Ocular parasitoses: A comprehensive review.

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Retina and Vitreous Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India.
Cornea and Anterior Segment Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India.
Laboratory Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute-Entire Network, India.
Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, Orbit and Ocular Oncology Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India.
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:


Parasitic infections of the eyes are a major cause of ocular diseases across the globe. The causative agents range from simple organisms such as unicellular protozoans to complex metazoan helminths. The disease spectrum varies depending on the geographic location, prevailing hygiene, living and eating habits of the inhabitants, and the type of animals that surround them. They cause enormous ocular morbidity and mortality not because they are untreatable, but largely due to late or misdiagnosis, often from unfamiliarity with the diseases produced. We provide an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the ophthalmic parasitoses. Each section describes the causative agent, mode of transmission, geographic distribution, ocular pathologies, and their management for common parasites with brief mention of the ones that are rare.


Acanthamoeba keratitis; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis; ocular cysticercosis; ocular filariasis; ocular larva migrans; ocular malaria; ocular toxocariasis; ocular toxoplasmosis; ophthalmic parasitoses; ophthalmomyiasis; parasitic infections of the eye; phthiriasis palpebrarum

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