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Dev Cell. 2016 Oct 24;39(2):169-185. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

The Germ Cell Fate of Cynomolgus Monkeys Is Specified in the Nascent Amnion.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; JST, ERATO, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
2
JST, ERATO, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Research Center for Animal Life Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.
3
Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara-cho 53, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.
4
Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan; Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; AMED-CREST, AMED, 1-7-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan.
5
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; JST, ERATO, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan; Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address: saitou@anat2.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

The germ cell lineage ensures reproduction and heredity. The mechanism for germ cell specification in primates, including humans, has remained unknown. In primates, upon implantation the pluripotent epiblast segregates the amnion, an extra-embryonic membrane eventually ensheathing an embryo, and thereafter initiates gastrulation to generate three germ layers. Here, we show that in cynomolgus monkeys, the SOX17/TFAP2C/BLIMP1-positive primordial germ cells (cyPGCs) originate from the dorsal amnion at embryonic day 11 (E11) prior to gastrulation. cyPGCs appear to migrate down the amnion and, through proliferation and recruitment from the posterior amnion, expand in number around the posterior yolk sac by E17. Remarkably, the amnion itself expresses BMP4 and WNT3A, cytokines potentially critical for cyPGC specification, and responds primarily to them. Moreover, human PGC-like cells in vitro exhibit a transcriptome similar to cyPGCs just after specification. Our study identifies the origin of PGCs and a unique function of the nascent amnion in primates.

KEYWORDS:

BLIMP1; BMP4; SOX17; amnion; cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis); epiblast; monkeys; primordial germ cells; specification

PMID:
27720607
DOI:
10.1016/j.devcel.2016.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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